Dr. Kretov Kirill - Basic classification of corporate assets.

Summary of Different types of Intangibles.

“Making the invisible visible is the CEO’s job” (John Hagel, The McKinsey Quarterly)

Dr. Kretov Kirill, December 2009, Geneva, Switzerland.

1.0 Introduction

Dr. Kretov Kirill, December 2009, Geneva, Switzerland.

Amid the many complicated and artistic models encountered during the last decade, it is now evident for the majority of businesses that its valuation of Intangible Assets and Intellectual Capital has shown being more theoretical than practical. Although numerous studies have been completed around the valuation of Intellectual Capital, the majority of the findings seem more theoretical than practical.
Introduction to Various types of Intangibles by Dr. Kretov Kirill.
The idea of intellectual capital had been researched by many elite scholars, who've created many interesting theories. However, the majority of the work they do is purely theoretical, as well as their concepts and theories usually are not widely accepted. Very few of these are already actually applied. For example, many papers happen to be discussed intellectual capital and it is importance to some company’s performance; quantitative analyses and reports show that intellectual capital is surely an emerging competitive advantage that brings about long-term profits and greatly increases the worth of the organization. However, current accounting practices recognize merely a limited variety of intangible asset types (with regards to intellectual capital). From your accounting perspective, the choice is very limited: you will find R&D and Goodwill (the 2nd being inapplicable to most companies). Only when the business is aware of the presence of some particular kind of asset may it decide to estimate its value using a given valuation method (if your are applicable). The problem is that the final value is not a guarantee from the real value of an asset. Another practitioner may not accept its valuation principle applied and may propose another that he finds right, or someone might apply a variety of theories to the Intellectual Capital of the company and come on top of a listing of indicators that might not accepted or understood by individuals that prefer other concepts. Thus, it would appear that the root of the problem is not having less evaluation methods but the lack of widely accepted standards for these methods and for the reporting from the results.

Moreover, you will find issues involving patents, trademarks, copyrights, and other forms of “know-how”: exclusive rights, one of the most profitable kind, are given and then patent holders. An accountant recognizes just those assets recognized by current accounting practices (as regulated through the IFRS). Since reporting unrecognized assets is just optional, an accountant may decide not to invest some time reporting them, especially if his motivation is not quite high, and that he desires to spare himself the job. Knowledge management scholars understand that it's possible to identify where knowledge arises from and classify it using various theories and taxonomies. This could be helpful for businesses that apply KM principles to make value through the continuous identification from the pieces of intellectual capital they've created. The foregoing has described only a few of the perspectives from which the joy of intangibles can be viewed.

1.1 Historical Overview

Intangible assets usually are not a contemporary invention or perhaps a phenomenon from the Modern day. Indeed, contrary to popular misconceptions, this sort of asset 's been around for a long time. Throughout history, knowledge and information have remained two of the most precious commodities. The caveman who discovered the key of manufacturing and used a spear to kill a mammoth faster with less risk to himself possessed an intangible asset that meant the real difference between life and death not merely for the hunter-gatherer but also for his community. Similarly, the inventors of the alphabet, calendar, and mathematics possessed equally important intangible knowledge assets.

In contemporary society, knowledge has become a lot more complicated, specialized, and technical. Mistakes made in the process of a nuclear plant, space shuttle, or biological weapons research facility can mean the deaths of millions. Just like in the prehistoric era, knowledge, and expertise have remained assets that will mean the real difference between the life and death from the tribe.

Now, particularly in the planet, companies are increasingly reinventing themselves as service-oriented operations. Manufacturing tangible commodities that buyers can touch, smell, or taste is rapidly being a thing of the past. These transformations are becoming increasingly frequent across a wide spectrum of organizations. A lot of companies rely almost entirely on intangible assets and consider them among their core competitive advantages. This was accurately described inside the Harvard Business Review:

Employees skills, IT systems, and organizational cultures can be worth a lot more to a lot of companies than their tangible assets. Unlike financial and physical ones, intangible assets take time and effort for competitors to mimic, which makes them a strong way to obtain sustainable competitive advantage.( Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, “Measuring the Strategic Readiness of Intangible Assets”).

It's well known that most from the business resources in developed countries are intangible: in 1982, the information assets of American companies constituted 62% of the marketable value (Stewart T.A. Intellectual Capital. The brand new Wealth of Organizations.); after Ten years, that share fell to 38%, and current research (R.S., and Norton D.P. Die strategiefokussierte Organisation: Fuhren mit der Balanced Scorecard.) estimates it at only between 10% and 15%. By the end of 1999, value of the house reflected in the balance sheet constituted only 6.2% of Microsoft’s selling price, 4.6% of SAP’s, and 6.6% of Coca-Cola’s (Daum J.H. Intangible Assets). In 1982, the share of the non-material resources in added value creation for that 500 largest American companies was 38%, and also by 1998 it was 85% (Du Voitel, R.D., Roventa, P. Mit Wissen wachsen-Strategisches Management von intellektuellem Kapital, in.: Perspektiven der Strategischen Unternehmensfuehrung.).

The present investments structure strengthens the prevalence of non-material resources: in the early 80s, 62% of investments in the American industry were acquisitions of fabric assets; by 1992, that share dropped to 38% and only agreed to be 16% in 1999 . Since 1991, US enterprises are already spending more income on information processing equipment than on other equipment; details are replacing material merchandise stock, information is pushing out tangible fixed assets.

Prominent economist Leonard Nakamura estimates how the United states of america invests at least $1 trillion annually in intangibles (Leonard Nakamura, “A Trillion Dollars a Year in Intangible Investment and also the New Economy,” in John Hand and Baruch Lev, eds., Intangible Assets: Values, Measures, and Risks.), a figure derived from the fact about Six to ten percent of the usa GDP is allocated to intangible assets. Investments in R&D and software have raised significantly throughout the last 4 decades. Simultaneously, the average expense of goods sold has fallen by greater than 10 percent since 1980. Services, which are counted as intangibles, rose from 22% of GDP in 1950 to 39% in 1999.

These dramatic changes (Margaret Blair, and Steven Wallman, “The Growing Intangibles Reporting Discrepancy,” Unseen Wealth: Report with the Brookings Task Force and Intangibles.) not only document a clear boost in investments in intangible assets but also underscore the growing price of intangibles as a possible important component of contemporary business.


2.0 Basic classification of corporate assets

Every organization possesses multiple kinds of assets, so it combines to make services and goods. The objective of this section is always to classify these assets according to their common attributes.

All assets could be divided into two major types. The very first type incorporates conventional assets which can be touched, sensed, and felt: they are referred to as tangible assets. Any asset that doesn't fit the aforementioned description could be categorized as intangible. Based on IFRS (IAS-38 Intangible Assets, Issued in September 1998, revised in January 2008.), an Intangible Asset is definitely an identifiable non-monetary asset that does not have physical substance. An intangible asset must be identifiable, essential that distinguishes it from goodwill.

Tangible assets are generally related to intangible assets, as represented inside the diagram from the overlap involving the two major categories. For example, when an organization produces physical commodities, it's going to usually have some kind of ip (IP) associated with and involved in the manufacturing process.

Most physical products, however, can not be patented within their entirety. For example, a notebook computer manufactured by Sony may include not only a patented CPU cooling technology, the Sony brand, as well as the VAIO trademark but additionally a Blue-ray player, which relies upon technology developed and patented by the Blue-Ray Disk Association (BDA). Similarly, automobile industry giants like BMW incorporate components, for example This stuff and Mp3's, which can be patented by other organizations.

However, a business may also possess intellectual property that has to be used in any manufacturing or production process. As an example, General Motors maintains an extensive portfolio of inventions and licensed ip as well as its wide array of trademarks and patents used in current product offerings. Thus, an overlap between tangible and intangible assets does exist but is only partial.

Furthermore, the diagram comes with financial assets, which can be intangible obviously. Cash and its particular equivalents are not real property, because cash needs no valuation; however, it can nevertheless be secured by physical assets. For that reason, the diagram illustrates an incomplete overlap between financial and tangible assets.

J. Cohen proposes that Intangible assets could be categorized into two distinct groups, identifiable and unidentifiable. Furthermore, intangibles (or proto-assets) share some of the features of identifiable and unidentifiable assets but don't fit neatly into either of these two categories. Ideas begin to see the difference in opinion about the essence of Intangible Assets. From a cpa standpoint (i.e., for your IFRS), an IA is an identifiable non-monetary asset, but J. Cohen states that the IA might be further split into identifiable, unidentifiable, and proto categories. Those that begin to explore seo farther will discover much more serious disagreements among researchers regarding terminology and concepts. I think, a good point ought to be called by way of a name identified by accounting practices: if it is not recognized but is clearly identified and valuated, then it is a good point.


2.1 Identifiable Intangible Assets (Recognized in Accounting)

    Intellectual residence is mostly linked to the concept of identifiable intangible assets and includes patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets. These factors all share one salient commonality - they're accorded special legal protection or recognition and are deemed property really should be law.

Recognition and protection of intellectual property is not an growth and development of modern times. The Copyright Act was enacted in the usa in 1790, while President Jefferson’s Patent Act of 1793 codified the idea of patents. Legislation, however, has occasionally proved to be inadequate, raising the possibility of benefits produced from the ownership of intellectual property being removed. For instance, in 2003 alone, 308 out 526 patent infringement suits filed in the usa were deemed invalid or unenforceable.

    Aside from temporary monopolies, the key good thing about ip ownership is its potential marketability. Patents are routinely sold, licensed and purchased. IP assets are identifiable, separable and are often purchased or assigned to someone apart from the inventor or creator.

Research and Development

    It might be smart to begin the discussion about types of Identifiable intangibles with Research and Development (R&D). Historically there have been couple of intangible items reported in public company financial statements: R&D and Goodwill. For this reason R&D expense records of public firms have been the main topics widespread academic research.

R&D is defined as an identifiable intangible asset as it could lead to the creation of intellectual property. For example a company’s research can lead to patents that can be purchased and sold separately. Marketable patents, however, aren't the sole purpose of R&D investments - they frequently cause improved manufacturing techniques, trade secrets and other kinds of intellectual property that may do not be patented, but will nonetheless enhance the company’s competitiveness. Consequently R&D gets the potential for the roll-out of other assets, many of which are discussed below.


    There are three basic kinds of patents, including utility, design, and plant patents. (See U.S. Code Title 35 - Patents , for a full description of patents and patent laws.) For your patent to get enforceable it should be indexed by a minumum of one registry of intellectual property, many of which may include The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the European Patent Office, asia Patent Office, and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

The core purpose of most of these offices is to act as the registry of patent information. These organizations check whether a patent application meets various criteria (has to be “novel, non-obvious, and useful”) and if so, records the invention as previously being created and belonging to patentee. The application process just isn't rapid and the cost to obtain a patent just isn't nominal. Mcdougal of this paper (Dr.Kretov Kirill) resides in Switzerland and has recently sent a patent application for “a approach to password protection against different types of key-logging techniques” for the European Patent Office (EPO). Besides attorney costs to assist draft the applying, simply starting the method costs CHF 3,600 and also the first answers are expected to arrive no prior to when half a year following the date of application. Normally it requires 2-3 years to win patent approval. Following a successful application, the patent holder has got the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling its invention for a period of 20 years (which explains why patents in many cases are referred to as temporarily granted monopolies).

    Perhaps most fascinating is a subset of utility patents knows as process or method patents. During the internet boom from the late 1990s, many start-up technological firms have declared process patents that described methods that might be beneficial to everyone. As an example, there is a patent filed around the “process” of utilizing modem to get in touch to the web. Most famous are probably Amazon’s “1-Click” buying feature and Microsoft’s double-click patent. Some critics from the USPTO allege that during 1990s, patent reviews failed to take into consideration the exam of “non-obviousness”. Many suggested the lifetime of Internet-related process patents needs to be reduced to under Twenty years.

However, despite the fact that many Internet-related process patents were approved just a few resulted in economic benefit to their inventors. It is usually logical to ask: “Why grant patents at all?” There is a simple economic rationale: if inventors cannot protect their work to make some cash from it, they have little motivation to create the invention to begin with. The authority to exclude others from using the invention is a kind of reward for investing the efforts to produce a patentable idea or technology. Patent law generally sports ths perception of monopolies being oftentimes good for customers. The enforced expiration of patents supposedly produces the right balance: enough protection to encourage innovation, although not so much concerning encourage abuse.


    U.S. copyright law was established in 1790, through the Second Session of Congress, convened on January 4th as well as the bill was signed into law on May 31st by George Washington. However the initial concept of copyright extends back towards the late fifteenth-century England once the printing press was introduced. Copyright is usually designed for written material or creative works, including books, photographs, music, video records, and software code. The process of obtaining copyright is pretty easy - the creator of labor owns the copyright when the work is created. Unlike patents, declaring copyright registration simply gives notice that the creator is claiming copyright towards the work, but it will not conclusively establish ownership. Furthermore, the copyright office will not screen submission for possible conflicts with existing copyrighted materials.

    Up until 1980s, owners of copyrighted materials, for example books or audio and video records were not faced with mass copying of these works. But lately, as a result of rapid progression of technology (specially the Internet) enormous quantities of copyrighted material were digitalized.

    At this point it could be interesting to note copyright issues related to digital media and to mention the concept of “fair use”. Fair use is “… any utilization of copyrighted material that does not infringe copyright even though it is done without the authorization of the copyright holder and without an explicit exemption from infringement under copyright law. ” However, fair me is widely misinterpreted. For example if someone else buys a pc game for about EUR 100, it is logical to expect that the buyer enamoured to get rid of it due to accidental scratching or other physical damage caused to the disk. DVD copying software enables you to make a backup copy, to ensure that when the original disc fights, the customer will not lose their funds.

However, there is no guarantee that the purchaser won't choose to share this backup with other people. Uploading the image file (exact copy with the disc) to a file-swapping peer-to-peer network may expose it to huge numbers of people, potential buyers that will not pay for game, but use its pirated copy instead. Some publication rack integrating anti-copying techniques that complicate the copying process, but at the expense with the buyer’s capability to produce a backup copy.

In other words DVD-ripping and peer-to-peer networking software itself can be extremely helpful, and may have socially valuable legal uses, even when issues can be used for illegal ones. Copyright holders struggle to find a solution that can help to prevent unauthorized usage of their work, however with minimal success up to now.


    Webster’s dictionary defines trademark as “a distinctive name, phrase, symbol, design, picture, or style utilized by a small business to spot itself to consumers”. The same as copyright, trademarks can be discovered through common-law usage. The registration process is somewhere between copyrighting and patenting the quantity of review conducted and legal assistance required. You will find legal advantages to registration, but trademark search is not necessary. A lawyer normally conducts one search only to know what other trademarks exist that may be mistaken for usually the one into consideration. It is even feasible for two virtually identical trademarks to coexist, provided that they aren't likely to be confused. For example it's possible that some plastic-window manufacturer will submit an application for the trademark called “Windows”, even when a very similar trademark is registered by Microsoft. You can definitely a start-up software developer company will create its web browser and apply for the “Internet Explorer” trademark they almost certainly is not going to obtain it, since the merchandise courses are very similar and likely to cause confusion.

Trade Secrets

    Trade secrets are forms of assets that result from in certain manner to do business or proprietary technology that provides competitive advantage to its holder. It really is something that can be used in ongoing business, like a unique compilation process or data mining system. In line with the Uniform Trade Secret Act (UTSA):

"Trade secret" means information, together with a formula, pattern, compilation, program device, method, technique, or process, that: (1) derives independent economic value, actual or potential, from not generally recognized to, and never being readily ascertainable by proper strategies by, other persons who is able to obtain economic value from the disclosure or use, and (2) will be the subject of efforts that are reasonable underneath the circumstances to maintain its secrecy.”

In other words, trade secrets are a thing that provides economic value simply because they remain unknown to the competition. For instance one company may abandon e-mail protocol because the communication channel between workers and switch the signal from an immediate messaging service. Derived economic value could be the not enough spam, instant message delivery, and improved security. Meanwhile, its competitors will still using slow and unsecure e-mails, waste 90% of these traffic on spam, and wonder why messages happen to be sent, although not received.

    Unlike patents, having a trade secret does not prevent others from using it. Two firms can independently and simultaneously hold the same information since the trade secret, nevertheless they cannot hold two separate patents on a similar invention. No one is able someone can prevent another company by using im service since the internal channel of communication, until the company is unaware of this possibility.


Brands are often mistaken for trademarks - in fact, the author (Dr. Kirill Kretov) of the paper was surprised to discover that Webster’s Merriam dictionary defines brand as synonym to trademark. It isn't - brands tend to be more than just names or trademarks. A brandname is an economic asset, as it adds value by conveying information regarding a product. According to Tom Blackett , brands that keep their promise are business assets. They attract loyal buyers who regularly come back to them, making it possible for the company owner to forecast cash flows and to plan and manage the creation of the company with greater confidence. Because of the brand’s ability to secure income it may be considered a productive asset in the same way as any other, more traditional business assets like equipment, cash, investments, and so on. At the same time brand owners hold the incentive to “keep their promise”. If eventually the marketplace discovers fraud the business risks to lose an important quantity of its clients.

The writer of the paper is a good fan of all Sony products - he believes that this company produces beautiful, innovative and durable products and, because of this, he's willing to pay more for their quality. But there are lots of other Japanese brands available and when suddenly Sony decides to chop corners and trade poor products under its good name, the writer only will switch the signal from choices.

Software Code

    Software code is considered to be one of the most complicated intellectual properties to codify. It's possible to obtain a patent for the business process that the code enables or trademark certain top features of the software. Actually, even some section of the code can be kept like a trade secret as the code itself can easily be copyrighted.

However, this is complicated by different accounting treatments which largely rely on if the software regarded as an input for the organization’s manufacturing process, or whether or not the software program is the firm’s strategy is and also itself. Quite simply the firm could use and/or sell software code. For example 'microsoft office' is definitely a useful application that organizations might use for word processing or spreadsheet calculation. Though the price of license for any given quantity of workplaces is probably not treated as valuable intangible property. Concurrently MS Office is definitely an valuable intangible property for the creator Microsoft. Remember that only Microsoft holds the source code, while those who buy licenses are merely given its compiled version.


2.2 Questionable Recognition

    Accounting standards ordinarily have high requirements regarding disclosure of data about non-material (intangible) assets. For example, IFRS-38 requires that financial statements ought to include these information for each type (class) of assets: ways of amortization, outcomes of re-evaluations, estimated life periods (asset remains useful), and other explanations of great changes in total price of non-material assets. Reporting also needs to range from the sum total of R&D, which can be considered as spending for your current period. However, it is the specific company that develops a classification of non-material assets, normally according to some principle of these homogeneity.

    In other words, IFRS recommends disclosure of data about valuable intangible (non-material) assets which can be belonging to a business although not identified by current accounting practices (CAP). At the same time, the report format may be defined by a company. As a result, there exists a not enough standardization and a nightmare for investors, who've to match parameters which can be often of different natures and incomparable. Some reports with information about particular “assets” very can be not incomparable simply with other companies but even with reports from your same company for different cycles. Some researchers have already identified this pessimistic of flexibility and freedom in reporting and classification allowed by IFRS.


    Goodwill is probably the most commonly discussed unidentifiable asset. It's got already been mentioned that goodwill is just one of two intangible items which were routinely reported in public areas company financial statements (another is R&D). Goodwill appears on the company's books when it acquires another company, and also the buyer naturally must pay more for this than the fair worth of the net identifiable assets, both tangible and intangible.

    Numerous goodwill definitions can be found in various documents and standards governing the business accounting and estimate activities (IFRS, USA GAAP). Note that given definitions are paraphrased and never exact citations from sources.

IFRS 3 "Companies merger" (International Financial Reporting Standards)

By IASB (International Accounting Standards Board)

Goodwill due to merger of the companies is the sum paid from the buyer within the purchase marketable value in expectation of future economic gains. The near future economic gains can result in the synergy effect of the acquired identified non-material assets or assets which separately usually are not subject to acknowledgement within the financial reporting but that are included in the purchase cost. Goodwill is the excess of a purchase cost over the acquired share with fair value of the identified acquired assets, which can be inseparable in the target company. Actual goodwill cost is the purchase cost without the presence of difference of fair value of identified assets, obligations and contingent obligations.

SFAS 142 "Goodwill and other intangible assets"(Financial Accounting Standards)

By USGAAP (US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles)    

Goodwill will be the cost excess of an acquired company on the expense of its identified assets minus obligations. Goodwill reflects such factors as customer demand satisfaction, good management, production efficiency, successful location, etc.

EVS 2000 (European Valuation Standards) (latest 2009)

By TEGOVA (The eu Number of Valuers’ Associations)

There are three types of non-material assets susceptible to evaluation: business goodwill (unallotted non-material assets), personal goodwill, and identified non-material assets. Business goodwill is inseparable in the company and could be considered inside the balance sheet after company sale, in accordance with IFRS. Personal goodwill isn't transferred under sale and isn't considered at company cost calculation.

As possible seen from the given definitions, in a variety of business accounting standards, you can find practically no discrepancies regarding the essence of goodwill. Thus, more often than not, goodwill value appears if company acquisition happens, as well as the distinction between purchasing cost and the fair price of identified assets is calculated.

In other words, the traditional understanding of goodwill origins lies in the following: Goodwill arises each time a clients are acquired at a cost exceeding its assets’ marketable values sum. Consequently, this excess could be explained this way: The company rate as a whole is composed of the expense of all assets, including the ones not reflected within the balance sheet. As it is known that in the balance sheet un-identifiable assets cannot (shouldn't) be reflected, their cost is embodied in goodwill. The rest of the approach to goodwill calculation is dependant on it.

However goodwill takes place not just if the company possesses unrecorded intangible assets. We can give samples of some factors irrelevant towards the price of intangible company assets that influence goodwill value and therefore are subject to be reflected inside the company-buyer balance sheet:

•    Cost from the identified assets (the harder non-material assets are capitalized, the less remain for goodwill);

•    Sales price of an acquired enterprise depending on a seller's ability to prove our prime price or about the buyer's capability to beat down the price, on commission intermediaries, etc.;

•    Identifiable assets evaluation errors (cost calculation is dependant on taken balance, not marketable worth of net assets);

•    Award paid at acquisition (excess of purchasing price over market capitalization at the moment of purchasing);

•    A worth of all company obligations (more obligations lower the need for goodwill);

•    Goodwill allowances methods (in numerous national accounting standards, allowance during the permitted by accounting standards period; immediate allowance with this value on the tariff of equity capital or deficiency of the allowance generally is accepted);

•    External environment influence: favorable location, favorable conjuncture, new preferences of customers, special taxation rates, etc.;

•    Identified assets depreciation methods;

The marketable worth of both assets as well as the business as a whole is decided for cases of probable best utilization. It is apparent that the most reliable methods of use for separate assets and business in general cannot coincide: The asset markets develop intoxicated by different facets compared to business markets. Quite simply, a small business price is dependant on money flows from sale of the goods or services made by the company and the cost of separate assets essential for production - by money flows from sale of these assets.

Thus, efficient utilisation of the business in general and of separate assets are non-comparable, meaning the business in general and separate assets marketable values may also be non-comparable. Completeness of company asset representation in the balance sheet is not important: In the event the expense of all assets is created the balance sheet, even those not identified by standards of the business accounting, the sum of the assets marketable values basically will not coincide with business cost overall. If cost in these assets’ use within e-commerce is more than cost at average market alternative way of use, the goodwill will be positive, or even - negative. Still, negative goodwill doesn't testify to inefficient activities inside the business as we understand an effective business as the the one which has assets return in an average branch level. Incomparability valuations of business overall and also separate assets is brought on by the fact that the company valuation overall is made from a look at business continuation, and evaluation of each asset is manufactured proceeding from your assumption of its independent sale (separately from your property complex within the business).

To ensure the above we are going to present these provisions. Goodwill evaluation is always connected to the value assessment of a business as a whole, which non-material assets and ip valuation specialists specify. Business cost calculation methods derive from revealing forecast data concerning company activities, on assets creation costs measurement or on comparison of activity indicators with all the comparable companies from an objective database. From your market perspective a business cost shall not rely on the cost of its elements, as company is an "ongoing concern", and its particular partition into elements shall happen just with a look at real or fictitious liquidation. Acting business is always thought to be an individual complex that can always act in the foreseeable future (IFRS, Principles).

Most material and non-material assets, in their merge in operation, lose their liquidity for their greater specificity and sometimes complete inseparability from your business. They're assets which can be created with this business and possess not one other application, as owing to technological specificity and to attachment with a website. (Tangible examples are various constructions like bridges and pipelines; an intangible example might be a value connected with personal ties of ex-owners with clients and suppliers.) Besides, sometimes you can find restrictions within their use: long-term obligations, contracts, government requirements (for example, ecological regulations), or social responsibility with the business. Additionally it is impossible to dismiss management and personnel errors. Under these conditions, market evaluations of assets are hard and could be replaced with substitution costs. Thus, assets often lose their independent marketable value; it remains only like a historic fact of investments realization in to these assets previously. This cost is also essential to investors being a blueprint for risk identification of present and future investments.

Bringing it all together, we can conclude that the goodwill concept can be used in a narrow and a wide sense. Inside a narrow sense, goodwill is understood because the accounting assets meeting the financial reporting standards criteria. Only acquired goodwill is acknowledged; internally created goodwill is forbidden to reflect within the balance sheet. The goodwill dimension is determined as a among buying value of the company and the book value of its material, non-material and funds assets and obligations. Inside a wide sense, goodwill can be a complex of most intangible company assets. Hence, we could discuss about it the goodwill of the operating company only inside the meaning distinctive from accounting sense. The approximate a feeling of this is expressed by the terms reputation, business standing, or/and company brand. But such goodwill (inside a wide sense) just isn't shown inside the balance sheet. Some authors, discussing goodwill, would rather call it "the company price" or "business reputation", keeping the identical sense.

When investor makes a decision to get money (or buy some company) he normally desires to know exactly what he is buying (or just speaking, what he gets in exchange for his money). When it is something company (an IT company that are operating in the field of software development or web applications), then most likely the sum total of all of its intangible assets is significantly less space-consuming than the entire company value. This value will in all probability appear in some kind of goodwill, but why is these numbers? With current accounting practices, in many cases we cope with an “expensive black box”. This is a reasons why a prospective buyer will do a due-diligence with the company. It will help to judge the intangible assets belonging to the corporation.

Human Capital

The phrase human capital came into the company lexicon after Gary Becker (University of Chicago economist and Nobel Prize-winner) published a book titled “Human Capital” in 1964. Becker (in addition to Jacob Mincer, Milton Friedman, Sherwin Rosen, and Ted Schultz) came up with economic concept of human capital as distinct from typical financial or physical assets, because of its difference from their website in the sense that human capital can not be separated from the humans who possess it. “It is fully consistent with the capital concept as traditionally defined to state that expenditures on education, training, medical treatment, etc., are typical investments in capital.” Soon after Becker developed the concept of human capital, economists and consultants begun to subdivide and classify it. To put it briefly, it means both physical and intellectual ability.

    Many researchers suggest that hr will be the most valuable assets of an organization. But wait, how can the main city value of human resources be found using current accounting practices?

For the intellectual organization that focuses on advance of different types of intellectual capital (not speculation, but real innovative development) which has got the biggest portion of its value assigned to intangible assets, people are everything. The business may be evaluated by calculating the amount of every one of the HR spending (salaries, payments to freelancing, training programs, various incentives, etc.). Someone may state that this can be exactly what is completed to calculate the fee, but expense is not just a value the administrative centre represents. It's more of a price as capital value concept. It may sound nonsensical, however it basically means that if someone incurs cost it assumes that something was bought (money was changed to something). No matter whether that something was tangible or intangible anyway, it features a value along with a price. More essential is whenever that something is, it will pay to other people (the number of people would love to have it). If there have been most of them, an amount be their price, and how would this price be determined? Also, if that something was bought on the market, for most buyers the cost would be similar (this product or service includes a fixed price). As a result it can be stated that it's a kind of valuation using the market approach. However, the value really is dependent upon the type of asset you own as well as the supply/demand curves for it. If the newest owner obtained it cheaper than these, it indicates he has good contacts (identifies relational capital in IC concept).

In relation to HR, if you have a project in which you need professionals to complete do the job, you don’t simply spend cash, but you acquire some quality work and also if it doesn’t use a material form it still has value. For instance, it could be consultation using a lawyer in Switzerland; project duration is 4-6 hours plus an hourly rate would be between 300 and 1000 Swiss francs. Based on your contacts (RC) the price of project (outsource) will probably be between 1500 and 5000Chf. But after the project’s completion and payment, you start to own something - it may be solutions to questions asked during consultation hours along with other bit of knowledge from your lawyer talking to you. Quite simply, you feel who owns some little bit of intellectual capital. If it's not very specific in your needs, probably there are numerous individuals that are prepared to pay a similar price for that sort of information. As a result it is really an intangible asset, which may be valued using a minimum of the fee and market approaches (more about evaluation will probably be discussed in later areas of this thesis).

 However, the wages are a really average reflection with the real creativity of a given person and cost generated (profit associated) as a result. Also, there are industry leaders and lagers - industry leaders are those who pay above the average salary set by industry in order to acquire the best people. Industry lagers normally pay below average, but it is not too their recruiting are worse with regards to creativity, skills, knowledge or experience compared to those in big companies. Consider all of the possible special areas of practice that exist for the modern IT companies: You can find big businesses that would be best in providing his or her products and services in the marketplace, but they can’t be very best in all possible market niches. It can make possible the problem whenever a little group of experts specifically field are much easier inside a certain task (Activity) when compared to a research center of some big company.

Also, worth mentioning is it may seem like in today’s economy companies no more compete when it comes to best technology; oahu is the competition of patented technologies as well as other licenses. Research and development, including creativity, are tied by various legal barriers (patent sharks), to ensure that many professionals are not able to enter a particular field of technology.

2.3 Intellectual Capital

Modern lines of world economy development, strengthening of your role of intellectual and knowledge helpful information on production of competitive products have resulted in occurrence of just one of the very most scaled financial problems.

Its essence can be defined as follows: as types of something creation have changed, information has turned to one of major factors of recent cost creation, it is crucial to reconstruct in appropriate way this content with the public reporting with the companies before their proprietors along with other investors. The reporting shall contain the facts about cost major factors: company strategy, future monetary flows, non-financial activities, intangible company assets, including business standing.

Obviously, people reporting just isn't limited to only the financial statements. As it was previously mentioned, IFRS recommends publication of knowledge about intangible assets not-recognizable by CAP. For example, there are numerous notes and discussions reported in annual reports (like K-10). However, this field requires farther standardization otherwise it's little practical value. On this paper, Kretov Kirill applies some concepts of intellectual capital in order to create a reporting model for that complete capital structure.

Initially the problem of evaluation of intangible factors has arisen in information-saturated companies the location where the amount of material assets is insignificant, and also the mental potential is high. Investors are not inclined to get to such companies, plus front with the managers there is a task of calculation of these intangible assets value and also informing investors to create more adequate picture in regards to the company activities with the and its particular prospects.

Modern understanding of intangible factors of recent cost production are embodied in concept "intellectual capital". The managers managing companies cost are almost single within the opinion concerning the name of this phenomenon, its content, and also that modern accounting can’t consider these new assets (employees competence, customers relations, computer and administrative systems, databases, etc.) . Some researchers even suggest that for intellectual capital accounting it really is required new financial and administrative concept . Financiers discuss whether it is necessary to change traditional accounting terms (non-material assets, business standing), and also about potential for cost evaluation of the new indicator, its accounting and showing within the reporting.

Three Major Elements of Intellectual Capital

Various models and theories of intellectual capital represent generalization worthwhile factors management practice in the specific companies, now it is admitted by both researchers and experts. Because of this each model is unique and reflects specificity of the company. At the same time, accumulating of expertise and data of the intellectual capital through the start of current decade means to find out general approaches, to build up more or less single structure of companies’ knowledge assets. Virtually all this challenge researchers and managers allocate three the different parts of intellectual capital:

1) human capital (HC);

2) structural, or organizational, capital (SC);

3) customer capital (CC).

In some models , the customer capital is known as the main city of relations, or connections (relational capital), however it is understood also as loyalty and client satisfaction.

In most cases, it's possible to estimate a person's capital volume with the quantity of intellectual workers and the quantity of information, knowledge and skills that they can own, through the quantity of leaders, idea men, "revolutionaries". The need for personnel knowledge and skills is characterized by specialists' power to solve difficult, non-standard, unexpected problems; employees' independence and trainability; the capability of managers to cope with transformations; creative activity; tendency to partner interaction; etc. We can estimate progression of a person's capital through proportion from the forms of activity "inspiring" on search of latest solutions forcing company's employees to understand something totally new. At last, level of human capital binding is estimated through personnel adherence to company's insight and values, employees' satisfaction by work and industrial relations, personnel loyalty for the company and retention of leading workers, company's reputation about the labor market, etc. (Later inside the work, a persons Resources is going to be discussed more into details.)

Organization structural capital is reflected from the number superiority business partners; degree of business partner retention towards the enterprise; integration with the value chain plus an company's role inside it; option of a flexible type of and effective business network (on a global scale, as well); information system quality; early detection system quality; involving of pressure groups into making decisions; procedures of transformation of implicit knowledge into explicit one; partnership level in the organization; quality of network interaction; completeness and quality of databases; trademarks and patents; codified knowledge of technical processes (the degree of completeness and clearness of documentation reflecting consumer value creation in the organization); variety of prototypes for economic problem solution; intellectual property; backlogs on new products; corporate culture market orientation; territorial arrangement advantages; unique technical libraries and databases, customer databases; logistic, sales, advertising, cartel contracts; overcome starting difficulties; licenses.

The business customer capital is reflected, through the following characteristics: expected discounted income from available consumers; number of regular company's customers, their share with sales amounts, average cooperation experience; customer growth quality and prospects; customers' satisfaction; company's "ownership" of the industry standard; competitive advantage with new production launch; the level of the concluded contracts; the degree of customer retention to the organization.

So, it's possible to tell that inside the provided models there is certainly more common than distinctions. The overwhelming most of authors recognize presence of intellectual capital independent elements - human, organizational, client, however are called. At the same time, there are a lot of terms anyhow connected with intangible assets: brand, business standing (goodwill), intellectual property, non-material assets, expenses on researches and developments. What exactly is relation of these terms with concept of an intellectual capital? It is not quite no surprise that the typical name "intellectual capital" can be used to blend such essentially different and frequently not having the direct regards to the intelligence phenomenon as employees' value system, enterprise image, brands, customers' loyalty. Inside our opinion, the uniting basis here could be the concept of intellectual capital circulation: employees' knowledge and capabilities are embodied in organizational processes and relationship with business partners that, consequently, produce the base for steady relations with customers; cooperation with customers and partners contributes to experience accumulating, progression of enterprise employees' knowledge and capabilities.

Ordering and systematization of existing terminology becomes pressing question where, specifically, the method of intangible assets reporting, accepted and recognized by the accounting organizations will depend.



Visitors notice

28/12/2012 13:22
Let your visitors know about news and events on your...

Website launched

28/12/2012 13:21
Our new website has been launched today. Tell your...


The list of tags is empty.